Author Topic: Long Distance Running  (Read 2401 times)

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adarqui

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Long Distance Running
« on: June 28, 2009, 02:49:27 am »
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adarqui

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Re: Long Distance Running
« Reply #1 on: June 28, 2009, 02:49:39 am »
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EMG AND PLANTAR PRESSURE PATTERNS AFTER PROLONGED RUNNING

Accepted 4 December 2007
ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of prolonged running on lower limb muscle activity, foot
pressure and foot contact area. The treadmill running test was performed at a running velocity of 12 km/h for
20 minutes. Twenty-nine male students from the Army Infantry School took part in this study. For all subjects
in our study, a number of variables were analyzed by the prolonged running. The EMG variables included
the signal maximum amplitude of EMG linear envelope of all the muscles. Meanwhile, maximal forces and
peak foot pressures in 10 anatomically defined areas of the foot, and contact area of the whole foot were
analyzed. Running EMG data in each of the phases (phase 2�4) were compared to those at the beginning
of the run (phase 1). Dynamic pedography data in phase 4 was compared to those of phase 1. Pedography
analysis revealed a significant increase in the maximal forces and peak pressures under the medial midfoot
and all forefoot regions. From phase 1 to phase 4, the maximal force increased by 32% under the medial
midfoot, 29% under the first metatarsal, 34% under the second and third metatarsal, and 21% under the
fourth and fifth metatarsal. The peak pressure under the medial midfoot increased by 19%, under the first
metatarsal increased by 21%, under the second and third metatarsal increased by 31%, and under the fourth
and fifth metatarsal increased by 21%. The averaged maximum EMG amplitudes of almost all the muscles
were increased gradually as time increased. Among them, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis
anterior muscles reach a significant amplitude at the p < 0.05 level. In conclusion, our results showed that a
prolonged running under a 20 minutes limitation led to a greater increase in muscle amplitude, midfoot and
forefoot loading compared with the beginning of running

adarqui

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Re: Long Distance Running
« Reply #2 on: September 07, 2016, 10:05:28 pm »
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http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/32/1/39.short

Quote
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study physiological changes caused by long term endurance training in a world class female distance runner, and to compare these changes with alterations in 3000 m running performance. METHODS: The subject underwent regular physiological assessment during the period 1991-1995. Physiological measures made included body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX), running economy, and lactate threshold. In addition, the running speed at VO2MAX was estimated. Test protocols, laboratory equipment, and laboratory techniques used were the same for each test session. RESULTS: The 3000 m race performance improved by 8% from 1991 to 1993 after which it stabilised. In contrast, VO2MAX fell from 1991 (73 ml/kg/min) to 1993 (66 ml/kg/min). Submaximal physiological variables such as lactate threshold (from 15.0 to 18.0 km/h) and running economy (from 53 ml/kg/min to 48 ml/kg/min at 16.0 km/h) improved over the course of the study. Despite no increase in VO2MAX, the reduction in the oxygen cost of submaximal running caused the estimated running speed at VO2MAX to increase from 19.0 km/h in 1991 to 20.4 km/h in 1995. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in 3000 m running performance was not caused by an increase in VO2MAX. Rather, the extensive training programme adopted, together perhaps with physical maturation, resulted in improvements in submaximal fitness factors such as running economy and lactate threshold. These adaptations improved the running speed estimated to be associated with VO2MAX, and resulted in improved 3000 m running performance.

adarqui

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Re: Long Distance Running
« Reply #3 on: September 07, 2016, 10:06:24 pm »
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https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-2008-1025715.pdf

Biomechanical Studies of Elite Female Distance Runners*