Author Topic: Muscle Architecture  (Read 5303 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

RJ Nelsen

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 111
  • Respect: -3
    • View Profile
    • Email
Muscle Architecture
« on: June 08, 2009, 01:23:51 pm »
0
All conclusions of studies will be listed in this original post (TABLE OF SUMMARIES) for quick reference.


Post anything related to muscle architecture including what is means, why it's important, the relationship between certain facets of it and performance, and how to affect it via training.


1. Fascicle length of leg muscles is greater in sprinters than distance runners.

Quote
Greater fascicle length and lesser pennation angle observed in leg muscles of SPR, compared with DR, would appear to favor shortening velocity as required for greater running speed.



2. Sprint performance is related to muscle fascicle length in male 100-m sprinters.

Quote
Muscle thickness was similar between groups for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis, but S10 had a significantly greater gastrocnemius lateralis muscle thickness. S10 also had a greater muscle thickness in the upper portion of the thigh, which, given similar limb lengths, demonstrates an altered "muscle shape." Pennation angle was always less in S10 than in S11. In all muscles, S10 had significantly greater fascicle length than did S11, which significantly correlated with 100-m best performance (r values from -0.40 to -0.57). It is concluded that longer fascicle length is associated with greater sprinting performance.



3. Effects of physical training and detraining, immobilisation, growth and aging on human fascicle geometry.

Quote
ypically, heavy resistance training in young adults has been shown to cause significant increases in fascicle angle of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii as measured by ultrasonography, while high-speed/plyometrics training in the absence of weight training has been associated with increases in fascicle length and a reduction in angles of vastus lateralis fascicles. These changes indicate that differences in geometry between various athletic populations might be at least partly attributable to their differing training regimes.



4. Effects of dynamic resistance training on fascicle length and isometric strength.

Quote
At the end of the study, significant increases in vastus lateralis muscle thickness (+6.9%, P < 0.001), fascicle length (+10.3%, P < 0.05), one-repetition maximum (+8.2%, P < 0.05), rate of force development (+23.8%, P < 0.05) and average force produced in the first 500 ms (+11.7%, P < 0.05) were seen only in the training group. Adaptations to the muscle architecture in the training group limited the loss of fibre force, and improved the capacity for developing higher velocities of contraction. The architectural changes in the training group were similar to those seen in studies where high-speed training was performed. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training with light loads leads to increases in muscle thickness and fascicle length, which might be related to a more efficient transmission of fibre force to the tendon.



5. Adaptation to chronic eccentric exercise in humans, the influence of contraction velocity.

Quote
After 10 weeks, the FAST group demonstrated significant [mean (SEM)] increases in eccentric [29.6 (6.4)%] and concentric torque [27.4 (7.3)%] at 3.14 rad x s(-1), isometric torque [21.3 (4.3)%] and eccentric torque [25.2 (7.2)%] at 0.52 rad x s(-1). The percentage of type I fibres in the FAST group decreased from [53.8 (6.6)% to 39.1 (4.4)%] while type IIb fibre percentage increased from [5.8 (1.9)% to 12.9 (3.3)%; P < 0.05]. In contrast, the SLOW group did not experience significant changes in muscle fibre type or muscle torque.



6. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fibre size and myofibrillar gene expression after immobilization and retraining in humans.

Quote
Immobilization reduced type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre areas by 13, 10 and 10 %, respectively and after 2 weeks of spontaneous recovery from immobilization these fibres were 5 % smaller than at baseline. Hypertrophy of type I, IIa and IIx fibres relative to baseline was 10, 16 and 16 % after eccentric and 11, 9 and 10 % after mixed training (all P < 0.05), exceeding the 4, 5 and 5 % gains after concentric training. Type IIa and IIx fibre enlargements were greatest after eccentric training.



7. Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture.

Quote
At WK8, knee extensor MVC significantly increased by 27% (P < 0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in muscle activation (+6%, P < 0.01), quadriceps muscle ACSA (+6%, P < 0.001), and VL pennation angle (+14%, P < 0.001). A significant increase in normalized EMG activity of both VL and vastus medialis (VM) muscles (+69 and +39%, respectively, P < 0.001) but not of rectus femoris (RF) muscle was also found at WK8. The ACSA of the VL, VM, and vastus intermedius muscles significantly increased at WK8 (5-8%, P < 0.001) but not at WK4, whereas no changes occurred in the RF muscle.



8. Differential Adaptations to Eccentric versus Conventional Resistance Training in Older Humans.

Quote
Training increased fascicle length in both groups, but the increase was significantly greater in the ECC (20% increase) than the CONV (8% increase) group. Conversely, pennation angle significantly increased in the CONV (35%), but not in the ECC (5%) group. Muscle thickness increased to a similar extent in both groups (~12%). In the ECC group, eccentric knee extensor torque increased by 9-17% across velocities, but concentric torque was unchanged. Conversely, in the CONV group, concentric torque increased by 22-37% across velocities, but eccentric torque was unchanged. Instead, isometric torque increased similarly in both groups (~8%). Thus, the two training regimens resulted in differential adaptations in muscle architecture and strength.



9. Effects of eccentric strength training on biceps femoris muscle architecture and knee joint range of movement.

Quote
The experimental group completed an eccentric strengthening programme for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included hamstring muscle strength (one repetition maximum), the passive knee extension test (PKE) (knee joint angle at which the onset of passive tension occurs), fascicle length (FL) and pennation angle (PA). One repetition maximum increased by 34% (P < 0.01), the PKE test revealed a 5% increase in joint range of motion (P = 0.01), FL increased by 34% (P = 0.01) and PA did not change (P = 0.38).



10. Differential serial sarcomere number adaptations in knee extensor muscles of rats is contraction type dependent.

Quote
Serial sarcomere numbers change differently for the uphill and downhill exercise groups, and for the VL and VI muscles. Short muscle lengths for uphill concentric-biased contractions result in a loss of serial sarcomeres, and long muscle lengths for downhill eccentric-biased contractions result in a gain of serial sarcomeres.



11. Changes in human skeletal muscle induced by long-term eccentric exercise.

Quote
Specimens from the controls showed a well-preserved, regular myofibrillar band pattern while changes in the myofibrillar architecture were constantly found in specimens taken after the training program. These changes consisted of Z-band alterations, Z-bands being out of register, extra sarcomeres, Z-band extensions and bisected Z-bands. Between the separated Z-band halves, thin and thick myofilaments as well as abundant glycogen particles and/or ribosomes, were observed. Type-2 (fast-twitch) fibres were predominantly affected. Contrary to the controls the trained individuals constantly showed a greater variation in sarcomere lengths in Type-2 fibres than in Type-1 fibres.



12. Adaptive responses to muscle lengthening and shortening in humans.

Quote
Eccentric training increased eccentric strength 3.5 times more (pre/post 46%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased concentric strength (pre/post 13%). Eccentric training increased concentric strength and concentric training increased eccentric strength by about the same magnitude (5 and 10%, respectively, P > 0.05). Eccentric training increased EMG activity seven times more during eccentric testing (pre/post 86%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased EMG activity during concentric testing (pre/post 12%). Eccentric training increased the EMG activity measured during concentric tests and concentric training increased the EMG activity measured during eccentric tests by about the same magnitude (8 and 11%, respectively, P > 0.05). Type I muscle fiber percentages did not change significantly, but type IIa fibers increased and type IIb fibers decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both training groups. Type I fiber areas did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but type II fiber area increased approximately 10 times more (P < 0.05) in the eccentric than in the concentric group. It is concluded that adaptations to training with maximal eccentric contractions are specific to eccentric muscle actions that are associated with greater neural adaptation and muscle hypertrophy than concentric exercise.



13. Myosin heavy chain IIX overshoot in human skeletal muscle

Quote
Furthermore, detraining following heavy-load resistance training seems to evoke an overshoot in the amount of MHC IIX to values markedly higher than those observed prior to resistance training.


14. Changes in the human muscle force-velocity relationship in response to resistance training and subsequent detraining

Quote
In conclusion, detraining subsequent to resistance training increases maximal unloaded movement speed and power in previously untrained subjects. A phenotypic shift toward faster muscle MHC isoforms (I -> IIA -> IIX) and faster electrically evoked muscle contractile properties in response to detraining may explain the present results.


15. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

Quote
Finally, MHC IIX protein expression was decreased with HL (HEAVY LOAD 70%) but not LL (LIGHT LOAD 15%), despite identical total workload in HL and LL. Our main finding was that LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy in healthy young men. However, LL resistance training was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.


16. Power Output and Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Composition in Young and Elderly Men.

Quote
Older subjects produced significantly lower power outputs and Vopt under all conditions (P < 0.01) and had lower proportions of fast MHC isoforms (P< 0.05). Peak power output during cycling was significantly related to lower-limb lean volume (r = 0.92, P < 0.05), whereas Vopt during sprint cycling was closely related to vastus lateralis MHC-II composition (r = 0.80, P < 0.05).


17. Exercise Pattern Influences Skeletal Muscle Hybrid Fibers of Runners and Nonrunners

Quote
Training volume influences both IIa/IIx and I/IIa hybrid fiber proportions in runners, but only the former in nonrunners. Hybrid IIa/IIx fiber proportions were modulated by racing distance. Distinctly different distributions of MHC isoforms within the hybrid fibers were seen in runners favoring longer distances versus those favoring shorter distances.


18. Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes

Quote
The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower Vo of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle.



19. Skeletal muscle adaptation: training twice every second day vs. training once daily

Quote
read the whole study on this one: In conclusion, the present study suggests that training twice every second day may be superior to daily training.


20. Effects of combined strength and sprint training on regulation of muscle contraction at the whole-muscle and single-fibre levels in elite master sprinters

Quote
Adding strength training stimulus to the training programme improved maximal, explosive and sport-specific force production in elite master sprinters. These improvements were primarily related to hypertrophic muscular adaptations.


21. Effects of power training on muscle structure and neuromuscular performance.

Quote
No statistically significant improvements in MVC of the knee extensor (KE) and plantarflexor muscles were observed during the training period. However, the maximal rate of force development (RFD) of KE increased from 18 836+/-4282 to 25 443+/-8897 N (P<0.05) during the first 10 weeks of training. In addition, vertical jump height (vertical rise of the center of body mass) in the drop jump test increased significantly (P<0.01). Simultaneously, explosive force production of KE muscles measured as knee moment and power increased significantly; however, there was no significant change (P>0.05) in muscle activity (electromyography) of KE.



22. Plasticity of human skeletal muscle: gene expression to in vivo function

Quote
Training studies suggest that there is a subtle interplay between the MHC-IIa and -IIx isoforms, with the latter being downregulated by activity and upregulated by inactivity. However, switching between the two main isoforms appears to require significant challenges to a muscle. Upregulation of fast gene programs is caused by prolonged disuse, whilst upregulation of slow gene programs appears to require significant and prolonged activity.


23. Changes in muscle force-length properties affect the early rise of force in vivo

Quote
Training-induced increases in muscle fascicle length may lead to a reduced or complete lack of adaptive gains in contractile RFD, especially in the early contraction phase.


24. ADAPTIVE CHANGES OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

Quote
In conclusion, the long-term strength and power training 3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown



25. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background

Quote
Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B) such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C) such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training



26. Muscular Performance after Concentric and Eccentric Exercise in Trained Men.

Quote
The present data suggest that for resistance-trained men, increases in concentric strength and velocity performance after eccentric training are largely mediated by changes in fiber and muscle cross-sectional area. However, hypertrophy alone could not explain the increase in eccentric strength. Because the increases in strength and velocity performance after concentric training could not be ascribed to muscular adaptations alone, we suggest that they may be attributable to additional neural factors.


« Last Edit: June 26, 2009, 10:36:17 pm by adarqui »

RJ Nelsen

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 111
  • Respect: -3
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #1 on: June 08, 2009, 01:26:31 pm »
0
Fascicle length of leg muscles is greater in sprinters than distance runners. (2000).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare architectural characteristics of leg muscles of sprinters and distance runners. METHODS: Skeletal muscle architectural characteristics were studied in 23 elite male 100-m sprinters (SPR, 10.0-10.9 s for 100 m), 24 elite male distance runners (DR, 13.5-14.5 min for 5000 m), and 24 untrained male controls. Fascicle pennation angle and isolated muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles were measured in vivo by ultrasound, and fascicle length was estimated. RESULTS: Standing height and upper and lower limb lengths were similar among the groups. Body weight was significantly greater in SPR than in either DR or controls, which were similar. Muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles was significantly greater in SPR than in either DR or controls, which were similar. In all muscles, pennation angle was similar between SPR and controls, but less than DR. Fascicle length of the vastus lateralis muscle (absolute and relative to limb length) was greatest in SPR and least in DR with control values being between the athlete groups. Fascicle length of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (absolute and relative to limb length) was greater in SPR than in either DR or controls, which were similar. Fascicle length of the gastrocnemius lateralis muscle (absolute and relative to limb length) was significantly greater in SPR than DR. Absolute fascicle length in gastrocnemius lateralis muscle was similar between DR and controls; however, relative to limb length DR was significantly less. CONCLUSION: Greater fascicle length and lesser pennation angle observed in leg muscles of SPR, compared with DR, would appear to favor shortening velocity as required for greater running speed.






Sprint performance is related to muscle fascicle length in male 100-m sprinters. (2000).

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint running performance in 37 male 100-m sprinters. The sample was divided into two performance groups by the personal-best 100-m time: 10.00-10.90 s (S10; n = 22) and 11.00-11.70 s (S11; n = 15). Muscle thickness and fascicle pennation angle of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Standing height, body weight, and leg length were similar between groups. Muscle thickness was similar between groups for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis, but S10 had a significantly greater gastrocnemius lateralis muscle thickness. S10 also had a greater muscle thickness in the upper portion of the thigh, which, given similar limb lengths, demonstrates an altered "muscle shape." Pennation angle was always less in S10 than in S11. In all muscles, S10 had significantly greater fascicle length than did S11, which significantly correlated with 100-m best performance (r values from -0.40 to -0.57). It is concluded that longer fascicle length is associated with greater sprinting performance.






Effects of physical training and detraining, immobilisation, growth and aging on human fascicle geometry. (2006).

In addition to its size and the extent of its neural activation, a muscle's geometry (the angles and lengths of its fibres or fascicles) strongly influences its force production characteristics. As with many other tissues within the body, muscle displays significant plasticity in its geometry. This review summarises geometric differences between various athlete populations and describes research examining the plasticity of muscle geometry with physical training, immobilisation/detraining, growth and aging. Typically, heavy resistance training in young adults has been shown to cause significant increases in fascicle angle of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii as measured by ultrasonography, while high-speed/plyometrics training in the absence of weight training has been associated with increases in fascicle length and a reduction in angles of vastus lateralis fascicles. These changes indicate that differences in geometry between various athletic populations might be at least partly attributable to their differing training regimes. Despite some inter-muscular differences, detraining/unloading is associated with decreases in fascicle angle, although little change was shown in muscles such as vastus lateralis and triceps brachii in studies examining the effects of prolonged bed rest. No research has examined the effects of other interventions such as endurance or chronic stretching training. Few data exist describing geometric adaptation during growth and maturation, although increases in gastrocnemius fascicle angle and length seem to occur until maturation in late adolescence. Although some evidence suggests that a decrease in both fascicle angle and length accompanies the normal aging process, there is a paucity of data examining the issue; heavy weight training might attenuate the decline, at least in fascicle length. A significant research effort is required to more fully understand geometric adaptation in response to physical training, immobilisation/detraining, growth and aging.






Effects of dynamic resistance training on fascicle length and isometric strength. (2006).

The aims of this study were to assess changes in muscle architecture, isometric and dynamic strength of the leg extensor muscles, resulting from dynamic resistance training, and the relationships between strength and muscle architecture variables. The participants (n = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The training group (n = 16; age 21.8 +/- 2.3 years, body mass 74.8 +/- 9.2 kg, height 1.75 +/- 0.08 m) performed dynamic resistance training for 13 weeks. The control group (n = 14; age 19.9 +/- 1.5 years, body mass 74.0 +/- 8.5 kg, height 1.76 +/- 0.05 m) did not perform any resistance training. Maximal dynamic and isometric strength were tested in both groups, before and after the training period. The members of the training group used the free-weight squat lift (90 degrees ) as their training exercise. The concentric phase of the squat was performed explosively. Skeletal muscle architecture of the vastus lateralis was visualized using ultrasonography. At the end of the study, significant increases in vastus lateralis muscle thickness (+6.9%, P < 0.001), fascicle length (+10.3%, P < 0.05), one-repetition maximum (+8.2%, P < 0.05), rate of force development (+23.8%, P < 0.05) and average force produced in the first 500 ms (+11.7%, P < 0.05) were seen only in the training group. Adaptations to the muscle architecture in the training group limited the loss of fibre force, and improved the capacity for developing higher velocities of contraction. The architectural changes in the training group were similar to those seen in studies where high-speed training was performed. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training with light loads leads to increases in muscle thickness and fascicle length, which might be related to a more efficient transmission of fibre force to the tendon.






Adaptation to chronic eccentric exercise in humans: the influence of contraction velocity. (2001).

We compared changes in muscle fibre composition and muscle strength indices following a 10 week isokinetic resistance training programme consisting of fast (3.14 rad x s(-1)) or slow (0.52 rad x s(-1)) velocity eccentric muscle contractions. A group of 20 non-resistance trained subjects were assigned to a FAST (n = 7), SLOW (n = 6) or non-training CONTROL (n = 7) group. A unilateral training protocol targeted the elbow flexor muscle group and consisted of 24 maximal eccentric isokinetic contractions (four sets of six repetitions) performed three times a week for 10 weeks. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the belly of the biceps brachii. Isometric torque and concentric and eccentric torque at 0.52 and 3.14 rad x s(-1) were examined at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, the FAST group demonstrated significant [mean (SEM)] increases in eccentric [29.6 (6.4)%] and concentric torque [27.4 (7.3)%] at 3.14 rad x s(-1), isometric torque [21.3 (4.3)%] and eccentric torque [25.2 (7.2)%] at 0.52 rad x s(-1). The percentage of type I fibres in the FAST group decreased from [53.8 (6.6)% to 39.1 (4.4)%] while type IIb fibre percentage increased from [5.8 (1.9)% to 12.9 (3.3)%; P < 0.05]. In contrast, the SLOW group did not experience significant changes in muscle fibre type or muscle torque. We conclude that neuromuscular adaptations to eccentric training stimuli may be influenced by differences in the ability to cope with chronic exposure to relatively fast and slow eccentric contraction velocities. Possible mechanisms include greater cumulative damage to contractile tissues or stress induced by slow eccentric muscle contractions.






Changes in muscle strength, muscle fibre size and myofibrillar gene expression after immobilization and retraining in humans. (2000).

Changes in muscle strength, vastus lateralis fibre characteristics and myosin heavy-chain (MyoHC) gene expression were examined in 48 men and women following 3 weeks of knee immobilization and after 12 weeks of retraining with 1866 eccentric, concentric or mixed contractions. 2. Immobilization reduced eccentric, concentric and isometric strength by 47 %. After 2 weeks of spontaneous recovery there still was an average strength deficit of 11 %. With eccentric and mixed compared with concentric retraining the rate of strength recovery was faster and the eccentric and isometric strength gains greater. 3. Immobilization reduced type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre areas by 13, 10 and 10 %, respectively and after 2 weeks of spontaneous recovery from immobilization these fibres were 5 % smaller than at baseline. Hypertrophy of type I, IIa and IIx fibres relative to baseline was 10, 16 and 16 % after eccentric and 11, 9 and 10 % after mixed training (all P < 0.05), exceeding the 4, 5 and 5 % gains after concentric training. Type IIa and IIx fibre enlargements were greatest after eccentric training. 4. Total RNA/wet muscle weight and ty I, IIa and IIx MyoHC mRNA levels did not change differently after immobilization and retraining. Immobilization downregulated the expression of type I MyoHC mRNA to 0.72-fold of baseline and exercise training upregulated it to 0.95 of baseline. No changes occurred in type IIa MyoHC mRNA. Immobilization and exercise training upregulated type IIx MyoHC mRNA 2.9-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. For the immobilization segment, type I, IIa and IIx fibre area and type I, IIa and IIx MyoHC mRNA correlated (r = 0.66, r = 0.07 and r = -0.71, respectively). 5. The present data underscore the role muscle lengthening plays in human neuromuscular function and adaptation.






Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture. (2005).

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 4 and 8 wk of electromyostimulation (EMS) training on both muscular and neural adaptations of the knee extensor muscles. METHODS: Twenty males were divided into the electrostimulated group (EG, N = 12) and the control group (CG, N = 8). The training program consisted of 32 sessions of isometric EMS over an 8-wk period. All subjects were tested at baseline (B) and retested after 4 (WK4) and 8 (WK8) wk of EMS training. The EMG activity and muscle activation obtained under maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) was used to assess neural adaptations. Torque and EMG responses obtained under electrically evoked contractions, muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA), and vastus lateralis (VL) pennation angle, both measured by ultrasonography imaging, were examined to analyze muscular changes. RESULTS: At WK8, knee extensor MVC significantly increased by 27% (P < 0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in muscle activation (+6%, P < 0.01), quadriceps muscle ACSA (+6%, P < 0.001), and VL pennation angle (+14%, P < 0.001). A significant increase in normalized EMG activity of both VL and vastus medialis (VM) muscles (+69 and +39%, respectively, P < 0.001) but not of rectus femoris (RF) muscle was also found at WK8. The ACSA of the VL, VM, and vastus intermedius muscles significantly increased at WK8 (5-8%, P < 0.001) but not at WK4, whereas no changes occurred in the RF muscle. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the voluntary torque gains obtained after EMS training could be attributed to both muscular and neural adaptations. Both changes selectively involved the monoarticular vastii muscles.






Differential Adaptations to Eccentric versus Conventional Resistance Training in Older Humans. (2009).

We hypothesised that training with eccentric contractions only (therefore utilising higher loads) would yield greater muscle structural and strength gains compared to conventional resistance training. Nine older adults (mean +/- SD age: 74 +/- 3 years) were assigned to a conventional (CONV) resistance training group performing both concentric and eccentric contractions and 10 (age: 67 +/- 2 years) to an eccentric-only (ECC) resistance training group. Both groups trained 3 times per week for 14 weeks at 80% of the 5-repetition maximum, specific to each training mode. Maximum knee extensor torque was assessed during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions across a range of angular velocities (0-3.49 rad.(-1)). Vastus lateralis muscle architecture (fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness) was assessed in vivo at rest using ultrasonography. Training increased fascicle length in both groups, but the increase was significantly greater in the ECC (20% increase) than the CONV (8% increase) group. Conversely, pennation angle significantly increased in the CONV (35%), but not in the ECC (5%) group. Muscle thickness increased to a similar extent in both groups (~12%). In the ECC group, eccentric knee extensor torque increased by 9-17% across velocities, but concentric torque was unchanged. Conversely, in the CONV group, concentric torque increased by 22-37% across velocities, but eccentric torque was unchanged. Instead, isometric torque increased similarly in both groups (~8%). Thus, the two training regimens resulted in differential adaptations in muscle architecture and strength. These results suggest the stimulus for adding sarcomeres in-series and in-parallel may be different, which implies different myogenic responses induced by the two different training methods.






Effects of eccentric strength training on biceps femoris muscle architecture and knee joint range of movement. (2009).

The aim was to determine whether eccentric strengthening changed the muscle architecture of human biceps femoris and consequently, knee range of motion. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group completed an eccentric strengthening programme for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included hamstring muscle strength (one repetition maximum), the passive knee extension test (PKE) (knee joint angle at which the onset of passive tension occurs), fascicle length (FL) and pennation angle (PA). One repetition maximum increased by 34% (P < 0.01), the PKE test revealed a 5% increase in joint range of motion (P = 0.01), FL increased by 34% (P = 0.01) and PA did not change (P = 0.38). This is the first report of an increase in FL in the biceps femoris following eccentric resistance training. In addition, the results might imply that this fascicle lengthening could lead to an increase in the range of motion of the knee. Clinical implications for rehabilitation and injury prevention are discussed.






Differential serial sarcomere number adaptations in knee extensor muscles of rats is contraction type dependent. (2005).

Sarcomerogenesis, or the addition of sarcomeres in series within a fiber, has a profound impact on the performance of a muscle by increasing its contractile velocity and power. Sarcomerogenesis may provide a beneficial adaptation to prevent injury when a muscle consistently works at long lengths, accounting for the repeated-bout effect. The association between eccentric exercise, sarcomerogenesis and the repeated-bout effect has been proposed to depend on damage, where regeneration allows sarcomeres to work at shorter lengths for a given muscle-tendon unit length. To gain additional insight into this phenomenon, we measured fiber dynamics directly in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of rats during uphill and downhill walking, and we measured serial sarcomere number in the VL and vastus intermedius (VI) after chronic training on either a decline or incline grade. We found that the knee extensor muscles of uphill walking rats undergo repeated active concentric contractions, and therefore they suffer no contraction-induced injury. Conversely, the knee extensor muscles during downhill walking undergo repeated active eccentric contractions. Serial sarcomere numbers change differently for the uphill and downhill exercise groups, and for the VL and VI muscles. Short muscle lengths for uphill concentric-biased contractions result in a loss of serial sarcomeres, and long muscle lengths for downhill eccentric-biased contractions result in a gain of serial sarcomeres.
« Last Edit: June 08, 2009, 03:27:21 pm by RJ Nelsen »

adarqui

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33005
  • who run it.
  • Respect: +8418
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #2 on: June 08, 2009, 02:37:17 pm »
0
awesome.. great studies

these studies really apply to what I am currently doing from jun-aug... so it should be very interesting to see how all of this will apply.

peace & thanks man good stuff.

RJ Nelsen

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 111
  • Respect: -3
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #3 on: June 08, 2009, 03:28:49 pm »
0
Changes in human skeletal muscle induced by long-term eccentric exercise. (1984).

The fine structure of muscle fibres from m. vastus lateralis of nine healthy males (mean age 26 years) was investigated. Four individuals constituted non-exercised controls while five subjects participated in a two-months eccentric muscular training program. Specimens from the controls showed a well-preserved, regular myofibrillar band pattern while changes in the myofibrillar architecture were constantly found in specimens taken after the training program. These changes consisted of Z-band alterations, Z-bands being out of register, extra sarcomeres, Z-band extensions and bisected Z-bands. Between the separated Z-band halves, thin and thick myofilaments as well as abundant glycogen particles and/or ribosomes, were observed. Type-2 (fast-twitch) fibres were predominantly affected. Contrary to the controls the trained individuals constantly showed a greater variation in sarcomere lengths in Type-2 fibres than in Type-1 fibres. It is concluded that muscular work of high tension can induce fine-structural alterations. When repeated over a long period of time, extreme tension demands seem to initiate reorganization in the muscle fibres, predominantly in the, ultrastructurally defined, Type-2 fibres. This adaptation probably results in a better stretchability of the muscle fibres, reduces the risk for mechanical damage and brings about an optimal overlap between actin and myosin filaments.






Adaptive responses to muscle lengthening and shortening in humans. (1996).

We tested the hypothesis that exercise training with maximal eccentric (lengthening) muscle actions results in greater gains in muscle strength and size than training with concentric (shortening) actions. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the quadriceps muscle were compared after 36 sessions of isokinetic concentric (n = 8) or eccentric (n = 7) exercise training over 12 wk with use of a one-leg model. Eccentric training increased eccentric strength 3.5 times more (pre/post 46%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased concentric strength (pre/post 13%). Eccentric training increased concentric strength and concentric training increased eccentric strength by about the same magnitude (5 and 10%, respectively, P > 0.05). Eccentric training increased EMG activity seven times more during eccentric testing (pre/post 86%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased EMG activity during concentric testing (pre/post 12%). Eccentric training increased the EMG activity measured during concentric tests and concentric training increased the EMG activity measured during eccentric tests by about the same magnitude (8 and 11%, respectively, P > 0.05). Type I muscle fiber percentages did not change significantly, but type IIa fibers increased and type IIb fibers decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both training groups. Type I fiber areas did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but type II fiber area increased approximately 10 times more (P < 0.05) in the eccentric than in the concentric group. It is concluded that adaptations to training with maximal eccentric contractions are specific to eccentric muscle actions that are associated with greater neural adaptation and muscle hypertrophy than concentric exercise.

adarqui

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33005
  • who run it.
  • Respect: +8418
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #4 on: June 08, 2009, 03:45:14 pm »
0
study 12 is very nice.. never seen that one.

RJ Nelsen

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 111
  • Respect: -3
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #5 on: June 08, 2009, 04:02:16 pm »
0
Yeah. I'm thinking about writing an article around that article and other one's saying similar things. Something about training specificity regarding the type of muscular contraction.

adarqui

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33005
  • who run it.
  • Respect: +8418
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #6 on: June 08, 2009, 04:05:21 pm »
0
Yeah. I'm thinking about writing an article around that article and other one's saying similar things. Something about training specificity regarding the type of muscular contraction.

nice..



adarqui

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 33005
  • who run it.
  • Respect: +8418
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #9 on: June 26, 2009, 08:59:12 pm »
0

Raptor

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 14464
  • Respect: +2394
    • Yahoo Instant Messenger - raptorescu
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: Muscle Architecture
« Reply #10 on: April 13, 2016, 05:04:10 am »
0
I wonder what RJ is up to nowadays