Author Topic: MISC Animal Studies  (Read 2817 times)

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adarqui

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MISC Animal Studies
« on: June 04, 2009, 11:11:23 pm »
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All conclusions of studies will be listed in this original post (TABLE OF SUMMARIES) for quick reference.


Post anything relevant to studies done on animals / rodents etc. I'm not a big fan of animal testing, thought it does provide valuable information. There are some crazy studies that exist out there.



1. Intracranial self-stimulation motivates weight-lifting exercise in rats

Quote
At the end of the training period, the rats were lifting over 550% of the starting weight. Gastrocnemius size and mean fiber diameter were increased in the weight-lifting animals. This model combines exercise with positive incentive and has the advantages of being relatively easy to implement and not producing any apparent physical or mental trauma in the animal.



2. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading

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A new class of visuomotor neuron has been recently discovered in the monkey's premotor cortex: mirror neurons. These neurons respond both when a particular action is performed by the recorded monkey and when the same action, performed by another individual, is observed.



3. Measurements of muscle stiffness and the mechanism of elastic storage of energy in hopping kangaroos.

Quote
3. When the muscle was developing close to its maximum isometric tension, up to eight times as much movement occurred in the tendon as in the muscle fibres. This is made possible by the wallaby having a long and compliant tendon.



4. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Growth of Rats During Intermittent Fasting

Quote
When the fasted-EOD rats were also exercised, they gained 29% more weight, consumed 11% more feed and had carcasses that contained 29% more lean mass and 18% less fat than the fasted-EOD rats. The data suggest that exercise may be beneficial where feed restriction is episodic, allowing some capacity for catch-up growth.



5. Adaptation of Equine Locomotor Muscle Fiber Types to Endurance and Intensive High Speed Training

Quote
Endurance training results in increased mitochondrial density, capillary supply, changes in key metabolic enzymes, and increased maximal oxygen uptake and promotes a transition from type II to type I muscle fiber. In horses, prolonged aerobic exercise training has been shown to induce a further decline in the percentage of type IIx MyHC isoform expression and an increase of type I and IIa MyHC isoform expression. Short-duration, high-intensity exercise training stimulates type IIA and hybrid (IIA/IIX) fibers. Therefore, intensive high-speed trotting facilitates muscle fiber hypertrophy and increases the oxidative capacity of type IIX fibers.


6. 2003: Functional trade-offs in the limb muscles of dogs selected for running vs. fighting

Quote
The physical demands of rapid and economical running differ from those of physical fighting such that functional trade-offs may prevent simultaneous evolution of optimal performance in both behaviours. Here we test three hypotheses of functional trade-off by measuring determinants of limb musculoskeletal function in two breeds of domestic dogs that have undergone intense artificial selection for running (Greyhound) or fighting performance (Pit Bull). We found that Greyhounds differ from Pit Bulls in having relatively less muscle mass distally in their limbs, weaker muscles in their forelimbs than their hindlimbs, and a much greater capacity for elastic storage in the in-series tendons of the extensor muscles of their ankle joints. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that specialization for rapid or economical running can limit fighting performance and vice versa. We suggest that functional trade-offs that prevent simultaneous evolution of optimal performance in both locomotor and fighting abilities are widespread taxonomically.


7.





8. Metabolic changes in skeletal muscle and blood of greyhounds during 800-m track sprint.

Quote
The aim of this study was to examine some metabolic properties and changes that occur in skeletal muscle and blood of greyhounds after an 800-m sprint. Three prime moving fast-twitch muscles were selected: biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius (G), and vastus lateralis (VL). The amount of glycogen utilized during the event was 42.57, 43.86, and 42.73 mumol glucosyl units/g wet wt, respectively. Expressed as a function of race time (48.3 +/- 0.7 s, n = 3), the mean rate of glycogen breakdown was 53.48 +/- 0.5 mumol.g wet wt-1.min-1 during the sprint. This is equivalent to an ATP turnover of 160 mumol.g wet wt-1.min-1, assuming 100% anaerobic conversion to lactate. This represents a conservative estimate, since greyhound muscle is heterogeneous and comprised of a large percentage of fast-twitch oxidative fibers (Armstrong et al., Am. J. Anat. 163: 87-98, 1982). The large decrease in muscle glycogen was accompanied by a 6- to 7-fold increase in muscle lactate from 3.48 +/- 0.13 to 25.42 +/- 3.54 (BF), 2.54 +/- 1.05 to 18.96 +/- 2.60 (G), and 4.57 +/- 0.44 to 30.09 +/- 1.94 mumol.g wet wt (VL), and a fall in muscle pH from 6.88 +/- 0.03 to 6.40 +/- 0.02 (BF), 6.92 +/- 0.02 to 6.56 +/- 0.02 (G), and 6.93 +/- 0.02 to 6.47 +/- 0.01 (VL). Cytosolic phosphorylation potential in BF decreased 10-fold from 11,360 +/- 680 to 1,184 +/- 347, and redox potential decreased 5-fold, indicating a marked reduction in the cytosol at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)





9. Skeletal muscle fibre composition in the dog and its relationship to athletic ability.

Quote
Skeletal limb muscles of the dog could generally be differentiated into three fibre types according to myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (pH 9.4) and succinic dehydrogenase activities. However, because this was not always possible, for comparative purposes only, division into low myosin ATPase (slow twitch) type I and high myosin ATPase (fast twitch) type II fibres was used. The percentage of these fibre types in m deltoideus, m triceps brachii caput longum, m vastus lateralis, m gluteus medius, m biceps femoris and m semitendinosus was examined in the greyhound, crossbred and foxhound. In all muscles the greyhound had a significantly higher percentage of fibres with high myosin ATPase activity at pH 9.4 than the other breeds, with almost 100 per cent in most muscles examined. The activities of nine enzymes and glycogen concentration were determined in m gluteus medius and m semitendinosus of the greyhound and crossbred. Significantly higher levels of creatine kinase, aldolase, alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase and significantly lower activities of 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase and hexokinase were found in both muscles of the greyhound. The implications of these findings are discussed.

adarqui

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Re: MISC Animal Studies
« Reply #1 on: June 04, 2009, 11:14:38 pm »
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adarqui

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Re: MISC Animal Studies
« Reply #2 on: March 16, 2010, 05:52:44 am »
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added this:

2003: Functional trade-offs in the limb muscles of dogs selected for running vs. fighting

The physical demands of rapid and economical running differ from those of physical fighting such that functional trade-offs may prevent simultaneous evolution of optimal performance in both behaviours. Here we test three hypotheses of functional trade-off by measuring determinants of limb musculoskeletal function in two breeds of domestic dogs that have undergone intense artificial selection for running (Greyhound) or fighting performance (Pit Bull). We found that Greyhounds differ from Pit Bulls in having relatively less muscle mass distally in their limbs, weaker muscles in their forelimbs than their hindlimbs, and a much greater capacity for elastic storage in the in-series tendons of the extensor muscles of their ankle joints. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that specialization for rapid or economical running can limit fighting performance and vice versa. We suggest that functional trade-offs that prevent simultaneous evolution of optimal performance in both locomotor and fighting abilities are widespread taxonomically.





This study might as well be a generalization of elite sprinters versus wrestlers.

adarqui

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Re: MISC Animal Studies
« Reply #3 on: March 16, 2010, 06:01:23 am »
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wtf:



http://www.glapbta.com/BFBP.pdf











Metabolic changes in skeletal muscle and blood of greyhounds during 800-m track sprint.

The aim of this study was to examine some metabolic properties and changes that occur in skeletal muscle and blood of greyhounds after an 800-m sprint. Three prime moving fast-twitch muscles were selected: biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius (G), and vastus lateralis (VL). The amount of glycogen utilized during the event was 42.57, 43.86, and 42.73 mumol glucosyl units/g wet wt, respectively. Expressed as a function of race time (48.3 +/- 0.7 s, n = 3), the mean rate of glycogen breakdown was 53.48 +/- 0.5 mumol.g wet wt-1.min-1 during the sprint. This is equivalent to an ATP turnover of 160 mumol.g wet wt-1.min-1, assuming 100% anaerobic conversion to lactate. This represents a conservative estimate, since greyhound muscle is heterogeneous and comprised of a large percentage of fast-twitch oxidative fibers (Armstrong et al., Am. J. Anat. 163: 87-98, 1982). The large decrease in muscle glycogen was accompanied by a 6- to 7-fold increase in muscle lactate from 3.48 +/- 0.13 to 25.42 +/- 3.54 (BF), 2.54 +/- 1.05 to 18.96 +/- 2.60 (G), and 4.57 +/- 0.44 to 30.09 +/- 1.94 mumol.g wet wt (VL), and a fall in muscle pH from 6.88 +/- 0.03 to 6.40 +/- 0.02 (BF), 6.92 +/- 0.02 to 6.56 +/- 0.02 (G), and 6.93 +/- 0.02 to 6.47 +/- 0.01 (VL). Cytosolic phosphorylation potential in BF decreased 10-fold from 11,360 +/- 680 to 1,184 +/- 347, and redox potential decreased 5-fold, indicating a marked reduction in the cytosol at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)






Skeletal muscle fibre composition in the dog and its relationship to athletic ability.

Skeletal limb muscles of the dog could generally be differentiated into three fibre types according to myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (pH 9.4) and succinic dehydrogenase activities. However, because this was not always possible, for comparative purposes only, division into low myosin ATPase (slow twitch) type I and high myosin ATPase (fast twitch) type II fibres was used. The percentage of these fibre types in m deltoideus, m triceps brachii caput longum, m vastus lateralis, m gluteus medius, m biceps femoris and m semitendinosus was examined in the greyhound, crossbred and foxhound. In all muscles the greyhound had a significantly higher percentage of fibres with high myosin ATPase activity at pH 9.4 than the other breeds, with almost 100 per cent in most muscles examined. The activities of nine enzymes and glycogen concentration were determined in m gluteus medius and m semitendinosus of the greyhound and crossbred. Significantly higher levels of creatine kinase, aldolase, alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase and significantly lower activities of 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase and hexokinase were found in both muscles of the greyhound. The implications of these findings are discussed.