Author Topic: MISC Resistence Training  (Read 2296 times)

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adarqui

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MISC Resistence Training
« on: June 04, 2009, 09:52:39 pm »
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All conclusions of studies will be listed in this original post (TABLE OF SUMMARIES) for quick reference.


We could always sort these out later. Post anything related to resistance training and strength/power/etc. Examples could be effect of squatting, oly weightlifting, optimal protocols and rep ranges, speed of contraction, etc.


1. Early Phase Differential Effects of Slow and Fast Barbell Squat Training

Quote
In the long jump, the fast group was superior in numerous variables including knee peak velocity and total-body vertical and absolute power. In the vertical jump, fast training affected the ankle and hip more (e.g., average power), and slow training mostly affected the knee (average torque). In isokinetic testing, the fast group improved strength most at the faster velocities, while the slow group strength changes were consistent across the velocities tested. Although both slow and fast training improved performance, faster training showed some advantages in quantity and magnitude of training effects.




2. Neuromuscular and hormonal responses in elite athletes to two successive strength training sessions in one day

Quote
Summary  Acute neuromuscular and endocrine adaptations to weight-lifting were investigated during two successive high intensity training sessions in the same day. Both the morning (I) (from 9.00 to 11.00 hours) and the afternoon (II) (from 15.00 hours to 17.00 hours) training sessions resulted in decreases in maximal isometric strength (p<0.01 and <0.05), shifts (worsening) in the force-time curve in the absolute scale (p<0.05 and ns.) and in decreases in the maximal integrated EMG (p<0.01 and <0.05) of the selected leg extensor muscles.




3. Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations in athletes to strength training in two years (1988)

Quote
Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations to prolonged strength training were investigated in nine elite weight lifters. The average increases occurred over the 2-yr follow-up period in the maximal neural activation (integrated electromyogram, IEMG; 4.2%, P = NS), maximal isometric leg-extension force (4.9%, P = NS), averaged concentric power index (4.1%, P = NS), total weight-lifting result (2.8%, P less than 0.05), and total mean fiber area (5.9%, P = NS) of the vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The present results suggest that prolonged intensive strength training in elite athletes may influence the pituitary and possibly hypothalamic levels, leading to increased serum levels of testosterone. This may create more optimal conditions to utilize more intensive training leading to increased strength development.



4. Upper body training and the triceps brachii muscle of elite cross country skiers.

Quote
The subjects who demonstrated the largest improvement in performance exhibited the largest muscle adaptation, which, in turn, was related to the pre-maximal oxygen uptake.




5. EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES IN SPORTS TRAINING: A
CRITICAL REVIEW


Quote
Contrary to popular belief and the practices of many athletes, the peer-
reviewed evidence does not support the view that such exercises are
more effective than traditional, slow and heavy weight training in
enhancing muscle power and athletic performance. In fact, such
exercises do not appear to be any more effective in this regard than
weight training at a relatively slow cadence, and some evidence
suggests they are less so. Also, such explosive exercises do not transfer
well (if at all) to athletic performance on the sports field, and present a
significant injury risk. Therefore, such exercises should not be
recommended in the strength and conditioning training of athletes,
except those who need to learn the specific skill of lifting heavy weights
fast, such as Olympic lifters and strongmen


adarqui

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Re: MISC Resistence Training
« Reply #2 on: June 10, 2009, 12:25:45 am »
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Neuromuscular and hormonal responses in elite athletes to two successive strength training sessions in one day

Summary  Acute neuromuscular and endocrine adaptations to weight-lifting were investigated during two successive high intensity training sessions in the same day. Both the morning (I) (from 9.00 to 11.00 hours) and the afternoon (II) (from 15.00 hours to 17.00 hours) training sessions resulted in decreases in maximal isometric strength (p<0.01 and <0.05), shifts (worsening) in the force-time curve in the absolute scale (p<0.05 and ns.) and in decreases in the maximal integrated EMG (p<0.01 and <0.05) of the selected leg extensor muscles. Increases in serum total (p<0.05) and free testosterone (p<0.01) and in cortisol (p<0.01) concentrations were found during training session II. These were followed by decreases (p<0.001 andp<0.01 and ns.) in the levels of these hormones one hour after the termination of the session. The responses during the morning training session were different with regard to the decreases in serum total testosterone (p<0.05), free testosterone (ns.) and cortisol (p<0.05). Only slight changes were observed in the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin during the training sessions. Increases (p<0.01) took place in somatotropin during both training sessions. The present findings suggest that high intensity strengthening exercises may result in acute adaptive responses in both the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. The diurnal variations may, however, partly mask the exercise-induced acute endocrinological adaptations in the morning. Recording of muscle activation and muscle strength and analysis of certain serum hormone concentrations with sufficient frequency during the training process may be useful in optimizing and controlling the contents of individual training sessions and the full training program.




1988
Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations in athletes to strength training in two years

Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations to prolonged strength training were investigated in nine elite weight lifters. The average increases occurred over the 2-yr follow-up period in the maximal neural activation (integrated electromyogram, IEMG; 4.2%, P = NS), maximal isometric leg-extension force (4.9%, P = NS), averaged concentric power index (4.1%, P = NS), total weight-lifting result (2.8%, P less than 0.05), and total mean fiber area (5.9%, P = NS) of the vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The training period resulted in increases in the concentrations of serum testosterone from 19.8 +/- 5.3 to 25.1 +/- 5.2 nmol/l (P less than 0.05), luteinizing hormone (LH) from 8.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.1 +/- 0.8 U/l (P less than 0.05), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from 4.2 +/- 2.0 to 5.3 +/- 2.3 U/l (P less than 0.01), and testosterone-to-serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratio (P less than 0.05). The annual mean value of the second follow-up year for the serum testosterone-to-SHBG ratio correlated significantly (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) with the individual changes during the 2nd yr in the averaged concentric power. The present results suggest that prolonged intensive strength training in elite athletes may influence the pituitary and possibly hypothalamic levels, leading to increased serum levels of testosterone. This may create more optimal conditions to utilize more intensive training leading to increased strength development.





Upper body training and the triceps brachii muscle of elite cross country skiers.

Original Article
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 16(2):121-126, April 2006.
Terzis, G. 1; Stattin, B. 2; Holmberg, H-C. 3

Abstract:
This study aimed at evaluating whether addition of extensive upper body training in well-trained cross country skiers induces an adaptation of the triceps brachii (TB) muscle and whether this affects performance. Muscle biopsies were obtained from TB muscle in six male elite cross country skiers before and after 20 weeks of increased upper body training. The cross-sectional area of type I and IIA fibers increased by 11.3% and 24.0%, respectively, and so did the number of capillaries per fiber (2.3-3.2) (all P<0.05). SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis revealed in single fibers that the number of fibers expressing myosin heavy chain (MHC) type I isoform decreased from 68.7% to 60.9% (P<0.05), MHC I/IIA isoform was unaltered, while MHC IIA fibers increased from 21.6% to 35.7% and the 4.8% MHC IIA/IIX disappeared with the training (both P<0.05). Citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activities increased by 23.3% and 15.4%, respectively, and double poling 10 km time-trial by 10.4% (all P<0.05). The values for TB are similar to what has been demonstrated for leg muscles after exercise training. The subjects who demonstrated the largest improvement in performance exhibited the largest muscle adaptation, which, in turn, was related to the pre-maximal oxygen uptake.






EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES IN SPORTS TRAINING: A
CRITICAL REVIEW

Bruce-Low S, Smith D. Explosive Exercises In Sports Training: A
critical Review. JEPonline 2007;10(1):21-33. This paper reviews
evidence relating to the effectiveness and safety of explosive exercises,
such as Olympic style weight lifting, other weight training exercises
performed at a fast cadence, and plyometric exercises, that are
commonly used in the strength and conditioning training of athletes.
Contrary to popular belief and the practices of many athletes, the peer-
reviewed evidence does not support the view that such exercises are
more effective than traditional, slow and heavy weight training in
enhancing muscle power and athletic performance. In fact, such
exercises do not appear to be any more effective in this regard than
weight training at a relatively slow cadence, and some evidence
suggests they are less so. Also, such explosive exercises do not transfer
well (if at all) to athletic performance on the sports field, and present a
significant injury risk. Therefore, such exercises should not be
recommended in the strength and conditioning training of athletes,
except those who need to learn the specific skill of lifting heavy weights
fast, such as Olympic lifters and strongmen