Author Topic: Sport: Boxing  (Read 3527 times)

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adarqui

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Sport: Boxing
« on: March 11, 2010, 04:03:09 am »
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Post studies regarding to boxing.

I did not include many injury studies.

Need more performance related studies, seems like their aren't a ton out there. China seems to be doing alot of the new studies though for boxing, especially in anticipating of the 2008 olympics.


x. Heart rate & blood lactate response in amateur competitive boxing.

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The heart rate (HR) and blood lactate response were studied on 26 senior national level boxers in competitive bouts to explore the aerobic-anaerobic metabolism as well as the training status of the players. The aerobic capacity (VO2 max) of the players were determined using graded running protocol on a treadmill. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration were measured during warm up and boxing rounds. The mean relative VO2 max of the heavy weight category boxers was lower (P < 0.05) than the other two weight categories. No interweight category as well as inter-round differences were observed in the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the boxers, excepting in the 48-57 kg category, the mean lactate levels in the second and third rounds were higher (P < 0.05) than in the first round. When all weight categories were pooled the mean HR and blood lactate levels were 178 beats/min and 8.24 mMol/l respectively. The study highlights that in amateur boxing, irrespective of the weight category and aerobic capacity, the anaerobic adaptability of the boxers was the same. The training requirements of the boxers demand that they should be also to tolerate a high blood lactate level (approx. 9.0 mMol/l) and a high HR (approx. 180 beats/min) over a total duration of one bout.





x. Effects of left- or right-hand preference on the success of boxers in Turkey

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Conclusions: It was concluded that left-handed people should never be forced to convert to right-handedness; instead they should be supported both verbally and in terms of equipment and they should be motivated, because the data obtained proved that left-handedness means success, especially in boxing.








x. Maximal Anaerobic Power Test in Athletes of Different Sport Disciplines

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Popadic Gacesa, JZ, Barak, OF, and Grujic, NG. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines. J Strength Cond Res 23(3): 751-755, 2009-The aim of this study was to investigate the values of anaerobic energetic capacity variables in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and to compare them in relation to specific demands of each sport. Wingate anaerobic tests were conducted on 145 elite athletes (14 boxers, 17 wrestlers, 27 hockey players, 23 volleyball players, 20 handball players, 25 basketball players, and 19 soccer players). Three variables were measured as markers of anaerobic capacity: peak power, mean power, and explosive power.





x. 2010 Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

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Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate
[HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.





x. A prospective cohort study of injury in amateur and professional boxing

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Conclusion: The high exposure experienced by the boxers (as a result of considerable training time) indicated that boxing has acute injury rates comparable to, and often lower than, those found in other contact and non-contact sports. Further, acute injuries during training appear to be less common and severe than those sustained in bouts.






x. Effect of auricular acupuncture on oxygen consumption of boxing athletes

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RESULTS

The VO2max of the AS group was significantly higher than that of the control and acupuncture PC6 groups (Table) respectively. However, the VE2max, TV, RR, and body temperature in both the acupuncture PC6 and control groups were not significantly different.






x. STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF INDIAN BOXERS
 
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The senior boxers showed a
significantly elevated (p < 0.05) levels of hemoblobin, blood urea, uric acid and peak lactate as compared
to junior boxers. In the senior boxers significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and
LDLC were observed as compared to junior boxers. No significant change has been noted in HDLC
between the groups. The age and level of training in boxing has significant effect on Aerobic, anaerobic
component. The study of physiological responses during graded exercise testing may be helpful to
observe the cardiovascular adaptation in boxers.








x. Olympic Champion Zou Shiming's Characteristic of Changes of Heart Rate and Blood Lactate Level in Preparation for Beijing OlympicGames

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Objective: Observing training heart rate and BLA of Zou Shiming in preparation for Beijing Olympic Games,and exploring his specific quality characteristics.Methods: 6 boxers in National Team including Zou and 12 boxers in Guizhou Team who compete in 48kg and 51kg,are test on their heart rate and blood lactate level(BLA) during teaching,competitions and specific physical ability training.Results:(1) In teaching match Zou's heart rates in the second and forth bout,and after the second and the third rest are all significantly higher than that of other boxers in National Team.(2) Zou's BLA in teaching matches and competitions are both significantly higher than that of other boxers in National Team.(3)His heart rate after 30s beating sandbag and 6 items of constitution circle combination training,BLA after intension target and 6 items of constitution circle combination training are all significant higher than that of other boxers National Team.(4) The heart rate levels after skipping double sway 200 times,pushing solid ball to wall for 1 minute and ladder running of boxers in Guizhou Team are all significantly lower than Zou's,and also significantly lower than that of other boxers in National Team in skipping double sway 200 times and ladder running.Conclusion: High level of low weight boxing match is a high intensity and strong glycolytic required sport.Compared with other boxers in National Team,Zou has outstanding speed,strength and endurance special,and is capable to exert more glycolytic capacity during teaching and competition.







x. The Influence of Supplementing Malic Acid Nutrition Fluid on Work Capacity of Boxers

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In order to explore the influence of supplementing malic acid nutrition fluid on work capacity of boxers after intensive training, 14 students involved in specialized boxing training are chosen as subjects and receive a 3-week intensive training. It turns out that 1) Supplementing malic acid nutrition fluid can enhance the boxers' anaerobic power output and speed up the recovery of heart rate after doing anaerobic training. 2) Supplementing malic acid nutrition fluid can reduce the blood lactic acid concentration after submaximal fixed quantitative load. In sum, supplementing malic acid nutrition fluid before intensive training can effectively enhance work capacity of boxers.






x. The Research On the Variable Laws of Individual Function of the Boxing Athlete During the Pre-season Training

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In order to research the variable laws of the function of boxing athlete in the pre-season training, some biochemical index were tested for the super athlete of Anhui Province during the national games. The result shows that there was no obvious for changing amplitude in Hemoglobin (HB) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the period(P0.05); the value of Testosterone (T) dropped in the metaphase of pre-season training(P0.05); the value of blood lactic acid (BLA) increased continually in the metaphase and in the anaphase; the value of Creatine Kinase (CK) occurred great changing amplitude in the prophase(P0.01),and then came back to the normal level. Conclusion: the laws of the function varied differently determined by the boxing athlete both the same pre-season training period and different one,the biochemical indexes differed significantly except HB.




x. The effects of restricted energy and fluid intake on simulated amateur boxing performance.

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This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 +/- 3.2 years; height 175 +/- 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 +/- 8.3 kg [Mean +/- SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care.





x. Research on Application of Some Biochemical Indexes in Functional Evaluation of Boxers

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x. Elite Athletes: Is Survival Shortened in Boxers?

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Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.




x. 2002: Physiological factors in middleweight boxing performance.[/b]

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BACKGROUND: We examined, within the middleweight class, the relationship between ranking in boxing competition performance and some physiological factors. METHODS: Eight elite Italian amateur boxers (first series of AIBA ranking) were assessed in 2 testing sessions, a week apart. In the first testing session all subjects underwent anthropometric measurements from which body fat percentage, upper arm and forearm muscle cross-sectional areas were estimated. In the second testing session all subjects performed grip strength measures and a maximal treadmill test to assess oxygen consumption (VO2), blood lactate and heart rate at maximal effort, at individual anaerobic threshold, and at individual ventilatory threshold. The athletes were ranked following the criteria of world amateur AIBA ranking. In this ranking the first ranked boxer had the highest score gained participating in international tournaments. RESULTS: A Spearman rho correlation analysis revealed that the VO2 at individual anaerobic threshold (46.0+/-4.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), r=0.91) and the hand-grip strength (58.2+/-6.9 kg, r=0.87) were highly related (p<0.01) to boxing competition ranking. VO(2max) (57.5+/-4.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), r=0.81) and wrist girth (17.6+/-0.6 cm, r=0.78) were moderately (p<0.05) related. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there are two basic factors related to boxing performance: physical fitness as indicated by individual anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen consumption, and upper-body muscular strength as indicated by hand-grip strength.





x. The effects in humans of rapid loss of body mass on a boxing-related task

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x. Making the weight: a case study from professional boxing.

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Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 +/- 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.





x. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

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The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.







x. Could performance-enhancing drugs be responsible for small pituitary volume in retired boxers?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19153416



x. A prospective study of punch biomechanics and cognitive function for amateur boxers.

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OBJECTIVE: Evaluate several biomechanical factors of the head during a sparring session and their link to cognitive function. DESIGN: Instrumented Boxing Headgear (IBH) was used for data collection during 4-two minute sparring sessions. Neurocognitive assessment was measured using the ImPACT(c) Concussion management software. A baseline neurocognitive test was obtained from each athlete prior to sparring; two additional tests were obtained and compared to the baseline. SETTING: Male and female amateur boxers. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 30 male and 30 female amateur boxers. Main Outcome Measurements: Head accelerations (translational and rotational), injury severity indexes (Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and Gadd Severity Index (GSI)), and cognitive function scores. RESULTS: Peak translational and rotational acceleration values were 191 g and 17,156 rad/s2, respectively, for males and 184 g and 13,113 rad/s2, respectively, for females. The peak HIC and GSI values for males were 1,652 and 2,292, respectively, and for females were 1,079 and 1,487, respectively. There was no significant difference in the neurocognitive scores between genders. A decrease was exhibited in the delayed memory post bout scores. All other scores either increased or did not significantly decrease when compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of impacts experienced by both genders were under the threshold for mild head injury. There was a statistically significant difference between peak translational and rotational acceleration, HIC, and GSI when comparing genders. When analyzing cognitive functions there was no statistical difference between genders.




x. Female boxers have high bone mineral density despite low body fat mass, high energy expenditure, and a high incidence of oligomenorrhea.

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Low body fat mass and menstrual irregularities have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to compare the relation between BMD, lean body mass, fat mass, physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), and menstrual status in female boxers and in physically active females with low (C1) or average (C2) fat mass. Boxers (n = 11) and controls (C1, n = 16; C2, n = 17), aged 18-38 years, were assessed for BMD and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Menstrual status and PAEE were determined from questionnaires. There was no difference in anthropometric measurements between boxers and C1 subjects, except that boxers had higher arm lean mass. However, both boxers and C1 subjects had a lower percentage of fat (p < 0.001) than C2 subjects (boxers, 14.6% +/- 2.0; C1, 15.5% +/- 4.2; C2, 25.8% +/- 3.4%), and boxers had a higher (p = 0.002) lean body mass index (lean body mass/height2, where lean body mass is measured in kilograms and height is measured in metres) than C2 subjects. The PAEE of boxers was higher (p < 0.007) than that of controls (boxers, 5748 +/- 2284 ; C1, 2966 +/- 2258 ; C2, 2714 +/- 1722 kcal.week-1). Oligomenorrhea was more common in boxers than in C1 and C2 subjects (boxers, 54.6%; C1, 18.8%; C2, 35.3%). Arm, leg, and spine BMD were higher (p < 0.008) in boxers than in C1 subjects, and arm BMD was higher in boxers than in C2 subjects. BMD Z scores were also higher (p < 0.05) in boxers (boxers, 1.1+/- 0.8, C1, 0.1 +/- 0.7; C2: 0.3 +/- 1.1). High BMD in boxers, despite low fat mass, high PAEE, and an increased incidence of oligomenorrhea suggest that boxing has a positive effect on BMD.




x. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density]

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This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength.





x. Energy expenditure in women boxing.

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OBJECTIVES: Women boxing have got recognition recently and so far no work has been reported on energy expenditure of national women boxers in India. This study was aimed to estimate the energy expenditure in Indian female boxers during sparring. METHODS: A total of 20 female boxers were subjected. Energy expenditure was estimated using the same individual's HR-VO2 regression equation. Heart rate was recorded through radiotelemetry. RESULTS: Results reveal that average and maximum energy expenditure considering the total duration of boxing are 12.7 +/- 1.3 and 14.4 +/- 1.6 kcal/min. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that depending on the severity of energy expenditure female boxing comes under heavy category and as it is a pioneer attempt in India, further studies in this aspect are really required which will guide the coaches regarding the energy expenditure pattern in women boxing.




x. Brief communication: pituitary volume and function in competing and retired male boxers.

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BACKGROUND: Pituitary consequences of chronic head trauma in boxing have not been investigated in detail. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pituitary function in retired or active amateur boxers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: 61 actively competing (n = 44) or retired (n = 17) male boxers of the Turkish National Boxing Team. MEASUREMENTS: Body composition variables, pituitary volume (in 38 of 61 boxers), and pituitary function. RESULTS: 9 of 61 boxers (15%) had growth hormone (GH) deficiency and 5 of 61 boxers (8%) had adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. All boxers with GH deficiency except 1 were retired from boxing. Of 17 retired boxers, 8 (47%) had GH deficiency. Retired boxers with GH deficiency had significantly lower pituitary volume than retired boxers with normal GH. LIMITATION: Pituitary volume was measured in only 38 of 61 boxers, and the study had no comparison group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that retired boxers have a high rate of pituitary dysfunction. Therefore, investigation of pituitary function in boxers, particularly retired ones, is recommended.





x. Study of plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in elite women boxers during a six weeks' training progamme.

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The present study was undertaken with an objective to frame out the lipid profile of Indian Women Boxers. Women boxing is a newly recognized game and no work has been reported on elite female boxers in India till date. The study was based on a sample of 45 women boxers (age 17 ~ 24 years) attending Senior National Women Boxing Camp at Sports Authority of India. Each subject was evaluated for Lipid Profile variables at the beginning and end of the six weeks training camp. Fasting blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein by venipuncture. Before the samples drawn the subjects were asked to take rest for ten minutes. The blood sample was analyzed by HITACHI UV-2000 spectrophotometer (Japan). Standard techniques and procedures were followed for all the estimation. Volume and intensity of different components of training was measured by observational and physiological methods. Data were subjected to statistical treatment like mean and standard deviation. Test of significance't' - test (for paired sample) was applied to asses the difference in pre & post-test. Results reveal that mean (+/-SD) Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL - Cholesterol and Cholesterol / HDL Cholesterol ratio was 144.7 +/- 3.6 mg%, 59.7 +/- 17.5 mg% 81.4 +/- 21.1 mg% 51.3 +/- 8.2 mg% and 2.8 +/- 0.5 respectively as found in the pre-test. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed in Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol level in the post-test. The study concludes that women who practice sport of boxing on regular basis have a favorable lipid profile. A significant change in lipid profile of the boxers was observed after 6 weeks' training program.





x. The impact of cognitive processors and conative regulators on specific motor abilities in boxers.

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The aim of the study was to analyze the relations of cognitive processors and conative regulators with specific motor abilities of elite boxers. Three sets of variables including 3 cognitive and 6 conative variables as predictors, and 6 specific motor (boxing) variables as criteria were used in a sample of 92 boxers. A series of regression analyses between the set of cognitive variables and particular criterion variables revealed a predominant impact of serial processor on specific motor abilities based primarily on specific speed (frequency of boxing technique performance). The series of regression analyses also showed a predominant negative impact of dysregulation of the organ function regulators from the set of conative variables on the manifestation of specific motor abilities in boxers. The data obtained in the study were used to develop an alternative model of the motor - cognitive - conative processes in boxing.




x. Information-processing under incremental levels of physical loads: comparing racquet to combat sports.

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AIM: Skillful performance in combat and racquet sports consists of proficient technique accompanied with efficient information-processing while engaged in moderate to high physical effort. This study examined information processing and decision-making using simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time (CRT) paradigms in athletes of combat sports and racquet ball games while undergoing incrementally increasing physical effort ranging from low to high intensities. METHODS: Forty national level experienced athletics in the sports of tennis, table tennis, fencing, and boxing were selected for this study. Each subject performed both simple (SRT) and four-choice reaction time (4-CRT) tasks at rest, and while pedaling on a cycle ergometer at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of their own maximal aerobic power (Pmax). RESULTS: RM MANCOVA revealed significant sport-type by physical load interaction effect mainly on CRT. Least significant difference (LSD) posthoc contrasts indicated that fencers and tennis players process information faster with incrementally increasing workload, while different patterns were obtained for boxers and table-tennis players. The error rate remained stable for each sport type over all conditions. Between-sport differences in SRT and CRT among the athletes were also noted. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide evidence that the 4-CRT is a task that more closely corresponds to the original task athletes are familiar with and utilize in their practices and competitions. However, additional tests that mimic the real world experiences of each sport must be developed and used to capture the nature of information processing and response-selection in specific sports.





x. Weight cycling of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middleage.

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OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain as young adults on long-term weight development. DESIGN: A follow-up study with questionnaires in 1985, 1995 and 2001. SETTING: Finland.Subjects:A national cohort of 1838 male elite athletes who had represented Finland in major international sport competitions in 1920-1965, including 370 men engaged in sports in which weight-related performance classes are associated with weight cycling (boxers, weight lifters and wrestlers; further called as weight cyclers), and 834 matched control men with no athletic background. OUTCOME MEASURE: Weight change since the age of 20 years, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity and overweight. RESULTS: The weight cyclers gained 5.2 BMI units from age 20 years to their maximum mean weight, which was at age 58.7 years. Corresponding figures for the controls were 4.2 BMI units at 58.5 years and for other athletes 3.3 BMI units at age 62.5 years. The proportion of obese (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) subjects was greatest among the weight cyclers both in 1985 and 1995. In 2001, the weight cyclers were more often obese than other athletes, but did not differ from the controls. The odds ratio for the weight cyclers to be obese compared to other athletes in 1985 was 3.18 (95% confidence intervals 2.09-4.83), and compared to the controls 2.0 (1.35-2.96). The enhanced weight gain of the weight cyclers was not accounted for by present health habits (smoking, alcohol use, use of high-fat milk or physical activity) or weight at age 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of weight loss and regain appear to enhance subsequent weight gain and may predispose to obesity. Chronic dieting with weight cycling may be harmful for permanent weight control.




x. The use of dietary supplements and medications by Canadian athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games.

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OBJECTIVE: To learn more about the prevalence of dietary supplement and medication use by Canadian athletes in the Olympic Games in Atlanta 1996 and Sydney 2000. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from personal interviews with Canadian athletes who participated at the 1996 Atlanta and 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. The athletes were interviewed by Canadian physicians regarding the use of vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements, and prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Of the 271 Canadian athletes who participated at the Atlanta Olympics, 257 athletes were interviewed; at the Sydney Olympics, 300 of 304 Canadian athletes were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: A quantitative and qualitative description of the use of dietary supplements by Canadian athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympics. RESULTS: At the Atlanta Games, 69% of the athletes used some form of dietary supplements, whereas 74% of the athletes used dietary supplements at the Sydney Games. Vitamins were taken by 59% of men and 66% of women in Atlanta, and 65% of men and 58% women in Sydney. Mineral supplements were used by 16% of men and 45% of women in Atlanta, and 30% of men and 21% of women in Sydney. Nutritional supplements were used by 35% of men and 43% of women in Atlanta, and 43% of men and 51% of women in Sydney. The most popular vitamins were multivitamins in both Olympics. The most popular mineral supplements were iron supplements. The most commonly used nutritional supplement in Atlanta was creatine (14%), but amino acids (15%) were the most commonly used nutritional supplement in Sydney. In Atlanta, 61% of the athletes were using some form of medication, 54% of the athletes were using medications in Sydney. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were the most commonly used medications at both Olympic Games. Among all sports, the highest prevalence of vitamin use occurred in boxing (91%) in Atlanta and swimming (76%) in Sydney. Rowers (56%) and cyclists (73%) demonstrated the highest use of mineral supplements. Nutritional supplement use occurred most often in swimming (56%) and cycling (100%). The use of NSAIDs was highest in softball (60%) in Atlanta and gymnastics (100%) in Sydney. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates that dietary supplement use was common among Canadian athletes at both the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. There was a slight increase in total dietary supplement use at the Sydney Games. Widespread use of supplements, combined with an absence of evidence of their efficacy and a concern for the possibility of "inadvertent" doping, underscore the need for appropriately focused educational initiatives in this area.





x. [Specific effects of boxing on functional parameters of the locomotor system]

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PROBLEMS: Boxer that take part on contests regularly are characterized by high strains on the locomotor system. Especially the area of shoulder girdle and neck can be overused by the fighting posture and standard techniques, that are often associated with non-physiological patterns. METHODS: Of 11 young boxers (age 14.6 +/- 0.6 years; 7.3 +/- 0.6 training units per week) and a control group (CG) of 52 male pupils (age 15.4 +/- 0.4 years) the static of head, shoulder girdle, and pelvis was detected by somatoscopy. Additionally, cyclical rotations of the cervical spine were measured using the 3-d-motion recording system CMS70 (Zebris, Germany) and the active range of motion was analysed. RESULTS: In comparison to the CG, head and shoulder of the boxers were ventralised more often (p < 0.01). Furthermore, highly significant group differences in the bilateral position of the shoulder heights and the iliac crests were detected in the frontal plane. On average, the active maximal rotation of the boxers was decreased by 17.8 degrees (p = 0.006; d = 0.800). DISCUSSION: Our study was able to detect significant differences in the analysed functional parameters of the locomotor system that may be explained by boxing specific strains and which are prerequisites of optimal performance. As long-term pathologic effects can not be excluded, adequate compensational exercises should be integrated in the training.




x. Boxing and "commotio cordis": ECG and humoral study.

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The objective of the study was to analyze the presence of myocardial damage in relation to official boxing matches. Low-energy chest wall impact could be responsible for sudden cardiac death, i.e. commotio cordis. As boxing is a traumatic sport in which thoracic hits usually occur, it seems interesting to know if there are any significant cardiac changes during official bouts. Fifteen amateur boxers, participating in the semifinals of the Italian Championship were investigated. A standard ECG before, immediately after, 1 hour and 12 hours after the match were obtained from each athlete to analyze atrio-ventricular conduction, QRS axis and duration, and ventricular repolarization. A blood sample was also obtained before and 12 hours after the match for analysis of total-creatin-phosphokinase, myoglobin, and T-troponin. After the fight, the following significant changes were encountered: higher QRS voltages, lowering of J-point and ST segment in lateral leads, higher ST-slope, lower T-wave amplitude, shorter T-wave peak time, and shorter QT interval. When the last 2 parameters were corrected for heart rate, no differences were observed for QTc, while T-wave peak time significantly increased. All these changes persisted until one hour after the match. Moreover, 3/15 boxers (20 %) showed marked ventricular repolarization anomalies in lateral leads after the contest, persisting for 12 hours in one case. However, no athlete had clinical and humoral signs of myocardial damage following the match. It was concluded that no clinical and humoral signs of myocardial damage were found after amateur boxing matches, although ventricular repolarization abnormalities can be found on ECG in 20 % of boxers, probably due to sympathetic hyper-activity related to the agonistic event.





x. A prospective controlled study of cognitive function during an amateur boxing tournament.

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BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported acute postbout cognitive function in amateur boxers, and none have documented the effects of repeated boxing bouts within a short time frame. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether participation in a 7-day amateur boxing tournament is associated with acute deterioration in cognitive test performance. METHODS: A prospective study was done of 82 collegiate amateur boxers participating in a 7-day single elimination tournament and a group of 30 matched nonboxing control participants. No participants had a history of recent concussion or past history of brain injury. For boxers, cognitive assessment using a computerized test battery was performed before the tournament and within 2 hours of completing each bout. Tests of simple and choice reaction time, working memory, and learning were administered. Analysis of variance was conducted to compare the serial performance of control participants with that of boxers participating in one, two, and three bouts. RESULTS: The 82 boxers fought 159 times. Cognitive testing was performed after 142 of these bouts. On simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and working memory tasks, the serial performance of boxers participating in three bouts (n = 22) was equivalent to that of boxers participating in two bouts (n = 22) and one bout (n = 32) and to nonboxing control participants (n = 30). An improvement in performance was observed on the learning task in boxers participating in three bouts. Boxers whose bout was stopped by the referee (n = 7) displayed significant slowing in simple and choice reaction time. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of boxers whose contest is stopped by the referee, amateur boxers participating in multiple bouts during a 7-day tournament display no evidence of cognitive dysfunction in the immediate postbout period.




x. A 16 year study of injuries to professional boxers in the state of Victoria, Australia.

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OBJECTIVES: Concerns about the significant injury risks in boxers have been well documented. To inform the continuing debate, updated information about the risk of injury for participants, and suitable means of modifying or preventing these risks, need to be identified. METHODS: Data describing all professional boxing fight outcomes and injuries sustained during competition, from August 1985 to August 2001, were obtained from the Victorian Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board. RESULTS: A total of 107 injuries were recorded from 427 fight participations, corresponding to an injury rate of 250.6 injuries per 1000 fight participations. The most commonly injured body region was the head/neck/face (89.8%), followed by the upper extremities (7.4%). Specifically, injuries to the eye region (45.8%) and concussion (15.9%) were the most common. About three quarters of all injuries were lacerations/open wounds or superficial. No information was available on the mechanism of injury. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should collect information on the mechanism of injury, as this is crucial for the development and implementation of effective injury prevention strategies. A suggested boxing injury report form is provided to facilitate this.




x. Cardiovascular response to punching tempo.

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Eighteen trained volunteers (12 men and 6 women: age = 22.0 +/- 2.8 years, height = 170.79 +/- 7.67 cm, weight = 71.54 +/- 12.63 kg) participated in 2-minute, randomized fitness boxing trials, wearing 0.34-kg punching gloves, at various tempos (60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 b.min(-1)). During each trial, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (VE) were measured continuously. A rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was attained at the conclusion of each trial. Subjects were able to attain VO(2) values ranging from 26.83 to 29.75 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), which correspond to 67.7-72.5% of VO(2)max. The HR responses yielded results ranging from 167.4 to 182.2 b.min(-1), or 85 to 93% of HRmax. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was seen with VO(2) between trials, although a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed with HR, VE, and RPE. It appears that boxing speed is associated with increased VE, HR response, and perceived effort but not with VO(2). Energy expenditure values ranged from 9.8 to 11.2 kcal.min(-1) for the boxing trials. These results suggest that fitness boxing programs compare favorably with other exercise modalities in cardiovascular response and caloric expenditure.




x. Effects of rapid weight loss on mood and performance among amateur boxers.

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AIMS: To examine the effects of rapid weight loss on mood and performance among amateur boxers. METHODS: Participants were 16 experienced amateur boxers. In stage 1, structured interviews were used to assess the type of strategies that boxers used to reduce weight and the value of performing at their desired weight in terms of performance. In stage 2, boxers completed a 4 x 2 minute (1 minute recovery) circuit training session. Boxers completed the circuit training session on three different occasions with a week between each. The first test was used to familiarise the boxers with the circuit training task; the second and third tasks were at their training weight and championship weight, respectively. Participants were given one week to reduce their body weight to their championship weight using their preferred weight making strategies; boxers reduced their body weight by an average of 5.16% of body weight. RESULTS: Boxers typically lost weight by restricting fluid and food intake in the week leading to competition. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance results indicated that rapid weight loss among boxers was associated with poor performance, increased anger, fatigue, and tension, and reduced vigour. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies used to make weight by boxers are associated with poor performance and a negative mood profile.




x. Development of a boxing dynamometer and its punch force discrimination efficacy.

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The development of sport-specific dynamometers is an important step towards ecological validity in analysing athlete performance. Design limitations in previous punch-measuring devices have resulted in values which may not or cannot fully reflect the force and multidirectional components in a punch. In developing this boxing dynamometer, a triaxial force measurement system and a boxing manikin interface were combined. The repeatability and accuracy of the dynamomoter were assessed using simulated straight punches. Discrimination efficacy was assessed by comparison of the maximal punching force of seven elite, eight intermediate and eight novice boxers during simulated boxing, throwing straight punches. For the elite, intermediate and novice groups, respectively, the maximal straight punching forces (mean +/- s(mean)) were 4800 +/- 227 N, 3722 +/- 133 N and 2381 +/- 116 N for the rear hand, and 2847 +/- 225 N, 2283 +/- 126 N and 1604 +/- 97 N for the lead hand. For all groups, maximal forces were larger for the rear than the lead hand (P < 0.001). Maximal punching force was greater in the elite than the intermediate group, and greater in the intermediate than the novice group (P < 0.05). The boxing dynamometer discriminated effectively between punching performance at three standards of performance and between the punching force of the rear and lead hands.





x. Effects of massage on physiological restoration, perceived recovery, and repeated sports performance.

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BACKGROUND: Despite massage being widely used by athletes, little scientific evidence exists to confirm the efficacy of massage for promoting both physiological and psychological recovery after exercise and massage effects on performance. AIM: To investigate the effect of massage on perceived recovery and blood lactate removal, and also to examine massage effects on repeated boxing performance. METHODS: Eight amateur boxers completed two performances on a boxing ergometer on two occasions in a counterbalanced design. Boxers initially completed performance 1, after which they received a massage or passive rest intervention. Each boxer then gave perceived recovery ratings before completing a second performance, which was a repeated simulation of the first. Heart rates and blood lactate and glucose levels were also assessed before, during, and after all performances. RESULTS: A repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant group differences for either performance, although a main effect was found showing a decrement in punching force from performance 1 to performance 2 (p<0.05). A Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed that the massage intervention significantly increased perceptions of recovery (p<0.01) compared with the passive rest intervention. A doubly multivariate multiple analysis of variance showed no differences in blood lactate or glucose following massage or passive rest interventions, although the blood lactate concentration after the second performance was significantly higher following massage (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some support for the psychological benefits of massage, but raise questions about the benefit of massage for physiological restoration and repeated sports performance.






x. Energy expenditure of a noncontact boxing training session compared with submaximal treadmill running.

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The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a 1-h noncontact boxing training session and to compare these results with the energy expenditure of a more conventional recreational activity such as running. Eight healthy males, accustomed to noncontact boxing training, were recruited for the study. Subjects underwent three tests: (i) a boxing training session in the laboratory during which energy expenditure was measured continuously using indirect calorimetry (BOXL), (ii) a boxing training session in a boxing studio during which heart rate was measured continuously (BOXS), and (iii) an incremental running test on the treadmill during which energy expenditure was measured continuously. The energy expenditure during 60 min of BOXL ranged between 2519 and 3079 kJ (2821 +/- 190 kJ). Seven of the 8 subjects had higher heart rates during BOXL compared with those during BOXS, suggesting that the subjects exercised at a slightly higher intensity during BOXL, possibly because of the "one on one" supervision. A typical boxing training session lasting 60 min causes a person to expend 2821 +/- 190 kJ x h(-1), the same amount of energy as someone running about 9 km in 60 min on the treadmill.






x. 1996 Effects of meal frequency on body composition during weight control in boxers.

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The effects of meal frequency on changes in body composition by food restriction were investigated. Twelve boxers were divided between a two meals day-1 group (the 2M group) and a six meals day-1 group (the 6M group). Both groups ingested 5.02 MJ (1200 kcal) day-1 for 2 weeks. Although there was no difference in change of body weight by food restriction between the two groups, the decrease in lean body mass (LBM) was significantly greater in the 2M group than in the 6M group. The decrease in urinary 3-methylhistidine/creatinine was significantly greater in the 6M group than in the 2M group. These results suggest that the lower frequency of meal intake leads to a greater myoprotein catabolism even if the same diet is consumed.




x. Prospective study of central nervous system function in amateur boxers in the United States.

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Active amateur boxers from six US cities were studied in 1986-1990 to determine whether changes in central nervous system function over a 2-year interval (as evaluated by tests of perceptual/motor function, attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, memory, visuoconstructional ability, and mental control, measures of ataxia and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, and electroencephalography) were associated with degree of participation in amateur boxing. A total of 484 participants were examined at baseline; 393 (81.2%) were examined 2 years later. At baseline, 22% of the participants had not yet competed in a bout; 9% had never competed in a bout by the second examination. Exposure was defined by number bouts, sparring-years, and sparring with a professional boxer. Very few statistically significant odds ratios were found between exposure and change in function. Significant tests of trend were found between the total number of bouts incurred before the baseline examination and changes in memory, visuoconstructional ability, and perceptual/motor ability.

adarqui

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Re: Boxing
« Reply #1 on: March 11, 2010, 04:04:26 am »
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doot.

LBSS

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Re: Boxing
« Reply #2 on: March 11, 2010, 09:18:30 am »
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where is this one from:

x. Weight cycling of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middleage.

Quote
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain as young adults on long-term weight development. DESIGN: A follow-up study with questionnaires in 1985, 1995 and 2001. SETTING: Finland.Subjects:A national cohort of 1838 male elite athletes who had represented Finland in major international sport competitions in 1920-1965, including 370 men engaged in sports in which weight-related performance classes are associated with weight cycling (boxers, weight lifters and wrestlers; further called as weight cyclers), and 834 matched control men with no athletic background. OUTCOME MEASURE: Weight change since the age of 20 years, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity and overweight. RESULTS: The weight cyclers gained 5.2 BMI units from age 20 years to their maximum mean weight, which was at age 58.7 years. Corresponding figures for the controls were 4.2 BMI units at 58.5 years and for other athletes 3.3 BMI units at age 62.5 years. The proportion of obese (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) subjects was greatest among the weight cyclers both in 1985 and 1995. In 2001, the weight cyclers were more often obese than other athletes, but did not differ from the controls. The odds ratio for the weight cyclers to be obese compared to other athletes in 1985 was 3.18 (95% confidence intervals 2.09-4.83), and compared to the controls 2.0 (1.35-2.96). The enhanced weight gain of the weight cyclers was not accounted for by present health habits (smoking, alcohol use, use of high-fat milk or physical activity) or weight at age 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of weight loss and regain appear to enhance subsequent weight gain and may predispose to obesity. Chronic dieting with weight cycling may be harmful for permanent weight control.

UPDATE: Never mind. Found it.
Muscles are nonsensical they have nothing to do with this bullshit.

- Avishek

sunday: run 14+ km
monday: lift
tuesday: run 10-12 km
wednesday: run 10-12 km
thursday: run 10-12 km
friday: rest
saturday: run tempo/VO2 max/speed x 6-8 km

adarqui

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Re: Sport: Boxing
« Reply #3 on: March 18, 2010, 05:57:01 am »
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x. HOMONAL AND METABOLIC BLOOD STATUS IN BOXERS AFTER A 3-ROUND MATCH Hormonal and metabolic blood status

Quote
Abstract: Boxing is one of the combat sports in which the effects of numerous head injuries suffered in competitions
may cause neurological disorders, growth hormone deficiency and inhibit the hormonal activity of the pituitary gland.
As indicated in papers published by a number of authors, the longer the sports career and/or the greater number of
boxing matches, the greater this risk becomes. Hormonal disorders in boxers and kickboxers were detected in the
clinical tests involving pharmacological stimulation of the pituitary gland. To date the literature provided no descrip-
tions of either hormonal or metabolic reactions in boxers to intense physical effort which stimulates the hormonal
systems. The objective of the study was to determine the post-effort blood status of growth hormone (HGH), cortisol (C),
testosterone (T) and lactate (LA) in amateur boxers who participated in the Feliks Stamm International Boxing
Tournament, however it was contingent on the anabolic-catabolic ratio (r = -0.528*,
p < 0.05). The average C and LA levels were slightly higher, and the T level slightly lower in the case of the defeated
contestants (n = 4) than that of the winners (n = 11). No correlation was found between the age, the life-time number of
boxing matches and the tested blood parameters in the boxers. The results of hormonal tests give no reason to suspect
dysfunction of the pituitary gland and renal cortex. The considerably low T levels in the two contestants (3.0 and 4.2
nmol/L) are difficult to explain without any information gathered in neutral conditions.

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Re: Sport: Boxing
« Reply #4 on: March 18, 2010, 09:56:29 pm »
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x. Direct Measurement of Punch Force During Six Professional Boxing Matches

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Despite considerable research into boxing, surprisingly little is known concerning the fundamental physics of forces delivered in a boxing match. Most previous punch force estimates have been obtained from laboratory studies in which an experienced boxer struck an inanimate object. This paper presents the first direct measurement of punch force in professional boxing matches. Measurements were made using a proprietary system that records the force associated with punch impact. Twelve boxers wore boxing gloves incorporating the bestshot System TM in six professional boxing matches across five different weight classes.



nice one ^^^

wish i could dl the pdf to see how they set that crap up.